Temperature Sensors are electronic devices that measures the temperature of its environment and converts the input data into electronic data to record, monitor, or signal temperature changes. There are two types of temperature sensors direct contact sensors and non contact sensors.
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature. Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a heat-resistant ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used. The RTD wire is a pure material, typically platinum (Pt), nickel (Ni), or copper (Cu). The material has an accurate resistance/temperature relationship which is used to provide an indication of temperature.
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming an electrical junction. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the See beck effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples are widely used as temperature sensors.
Non contact sensor is a type of remote-sensor used to measure the temperature of distant objects. Various forms of non contact sensor have historically existed. In the modern usage, it is a device that from a distance determines the temperature of a surface from the amount of the thermal radiation it emits, a process known as pyrometry and sometimes radiometry.
Level sensors detect the level of liquids and other liquidized solids, including slurries, granular materials, and powders that exhibit an upper free surface. Substances that flow become essentially horizontal in their containers due to gravity whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak. The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Continuous level sensors measure level within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a certain place, while point-level sensors only indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point. Generally the latter detect levels that are excessively high or low.
Types of Level Instruments:
Optical Level Switch
Ultrasonic Level Sensors
Microwave/Radar Level Sensors
Pressure Sensor are devices for pressure measurement of gases or liquids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications.
Types of Pressure Sensors:
Absolute Pressure Sensor
Differential Pressure Sensor
Vacuum Pressure Sensor
Sealed Pressure Sensor
Flow Sensors are electronic devices that measures or regulates the flow rate of liquids and gasses within pipes and tubes. Flow sensors are generally connected with gauges to read their measurements and also be connected to computers and digital interfaces. Flow sensors can be divided into two groups: contact and non-contact flow sensors. Contact flow sensors are used in applications where the liquid or gas measured. In contrast, non-contact flow sensors have no moving parts, and they are generally used when the liquid or gas being monitored would be otherwise contaminated or physically altered by coming into contact with moving parts.
Types of Flow Sensors:
Electromagnetic Flow Meter
Differential Pressure Flow Meters
Velocity Flow Meters
Open Channel Flow Meters